Subject: Storage | August 14, 2017 - 08:09 AM | Allyn Malventano
Tagged: P4800X, XPoint, NVMe, HHHL, Optane, Intel, ssd, DC
We reviewed the Intel P4800X - Intel's first 3D XPoint SSD, back in April of this year. The one thing missing from that review was product pictures. Sure we had stock photos, but we did not have the product in hand due to the extremely limited number of samples and the need for Intel to be able to make more real-time updates to the hardware based on our feedback during the testing process (reviewers making hardware better FTW!). After the reviews were done, sample priority shifted to the software vendors who needed time to further develop their code bases to take better advantage of the very low latency that Optane can offer. One of those companies is VMware, and one of our friends from over there was able to get some tinker time with one of their samples.
Paul whipped up a few videos showing the installation process as well as timing a server boot directly from the P4800X (something we could not do in our review since we were testing on a remote server). I highly encourage those interested in the P4800X (and the upcoming consumer versions of the same) to check out the article on TinkerTry. I also recommend those wanting to know what Optane / XPoint is and how it works to check out our article here.
Subject: General Tech | August 8, 2017 - 01:11 PM | Jeremy Hellstrom
Tagged: Intel, ssd, petabyte, sata, M.2, ruler, Optane
Intel is increasing the storage density of SSDs with a brand new form factor which gets rid of the empty space that takes up the majority of a 2.5" SSD. The new ruler format will fit up to a petabyte in a volume small enough to fit in a 1U rack space. This is significantly smaller than the volume it would currently occupy in a server rack, and helps reduce the number of connections required. If you used the the current 60TB monster from Seagate, you would still need 17 of the 3.5" drives to hit a single petabyte; not something which will fit into a single 1U rack. The Inquirer wasn't given a launch date nor a price but we can assume this drive will not meet Ryan's approved price per gigabyte.
"Although new formats are emerging all the time, this one seems particularly timely, coming as it does at a time when we have far exceeded the need for an SSD to take up even a standard 2.5-inch space, most of which is air."
Here is some more Tech News from around the web:
- Intel details its Core X-Series processors ahead of September launch @ The Inquirer
- A Gamer’s View of SIGGRAPH – AMD’s Event vs. NVIDIA’s Presentation @ BabelTechReviews
- The Next Big Thing in Wi-Fi? Multiple access points in every home @ The Register
- Remove label More 2 of 4 Forget sexy zero-days. Siemens medical scanners can be pwned by two-year-old-days @ The Register
- AMD Confirms Linux Performance Marginality Problem Affecting Some, Doesn't Affect Epyc / TR @ Phoroni
Subject: Storage | July 18, 2017 - 07:31 PM | Jeremy Hellstrom
Tagged: XPoint, srt, rst, Optane Memory, Optane, Intel, hybrid, CrossPoint, cache, 32GB, 16GB
It has been a few months since Al looked at Intel's Optane and its impressive performance and price. This is why it seems appropriate to revist the 2280 M.2 stick with a PCIe 3.0 x2 interface. It is not just the performance which is interesting but the technology behind Optane and the limitations. For anyone looking to utilize Optane is is worth reminding you of the compatibility limitations Intel requires, only Kaby Lake processors with Core i7, i5 or i3 heritage. If you do qualify already or are planning a system build, you can revisit the performance numbers over at Kitguru.
"Optane is Intel’s brand name for their 3D XPoint memory technology. The first Optane product to break cover was the Optane PC P4800X, a very high-performance SSD aimed at the Enterprise segment. Now we have the second product using the technology, this time aimed at the consumer market segment – the Intel Optane Memory module."
Here are some more Memory articles from around the web:
- G.SKILL TridentZ RGB 3600 MHz C16 DDR4 @ techPowerUp
- GSKill Trident Z 4133Mhz RGB CL19 DDR4 Dual Channel Memory Review @ Hardware Asylum
- Ballistix Elite 3466 MHz DDR4 @ techPowerUp
Subject: Systems | June 12, 2017 - 07:00 PM | Sebastian Peak
Tagged: radeon, PC, Optane, nvidia, Intel, geforce, gaming, desktop, dell, Core X-Series, Core i9, Area-51, amd, alienware
Dell has announced upcoming Alienware Area-51 gaming desktops featuring Intel's new Core X-Series processors, with CPU options up to the 10-core Intel Core i9 7900X and GPU configurations up to dual GeForce GTX 1080 Ti or triple Radeon RX 580 graphics.
"The Alienware Area-51 is our flagship gaming desktop, in this next generation, a new Intel architecture based on ‘Skylake-X’ technology has come to the high end desktop arena; Intel introduces the new Intel Core XSeries processors with a new level of Intel Core i9 options.
Gamers looking for the best that Intel has to offer that love gaming and have creative hobbies that employ resource intensive applications should anticipate the new Area-51 with Intel Core X-series processors. Geared to deliver the best gaming experiences in 4K, 8K and in VR environments, this new rig is powered for gamers running applications that prioritize clock with the 10-core option running at speeds of up to 4.5GHz using stock settings.
The Area-51 featuring Intel Core X-Series is ideal for customers who explore the world of megatasking, doing many system demanding tasks at the same time, and are looking for a complete, reliable solution from a trusted brand."
The Area-51 desktops feature (from Dell):
- Iconic triad high quality, uniquely engineered chassis built to deliver exceptional airflow, thermal management, and user ergonomics for daily use and future upgrades
- Supports NVIDIA SLI and AMD Crossfire graphics technology, with dual and triple GPU options
- Introduces Intel Optane Memory technology and M.2 SSD storage options to Area-51
- Built for gaming enthusiast wanting the absolute best gaming performance played with a VR, 4k or 8k display
- Designed with power supplies that provide modular cabling and a 1500W option with 80 Plus Gold efficiency for clean and efficient power
- Alienware Command Center includes AlienFX, AlienAdrenaline, AlienFusion, Thermal and Overclocking Controls
- Intel X299 w/unlocked BIOS for overclocking, CPU Socket R4 (2066 pins)
- Processor Options:
- Intel Core i7 7800X (6-core, 8.25MB Cache, up to 4.0GHz with Intel Turbo Boost Max 3.0 Technology)
- Intel Core i7 7820X (8-core, 11MB Cache, up to 4.5GHz with Intel Turbo Boost Max 3.0 Technology)
- Intel Core i9 7900X (10-core, 13.75MB Cache, up to 4.5GHz with Intel Turbo Boost Max 3.0 Technology)
- Single Video Card Options
- NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 Ti, GTX 1060, GTX 1070, GTX 1080, or GTX 1080 Ti
- Liquid Cooled NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080
- AMD Radeon RX 570 or RX 580
- Multi GPU Options
- Dual NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070, GTX 1080, or GTX 1080 Ti (NVIDIA SLI Enabled)
- Triple AMD Radeon RX 570 or RX 580 (AMD Crossfire Enabled)
- Memory Support
- 4x 288-Pin DDR4 UDIMM Slots
- 8GB DDR4 at 2667MHz standard, additional memory available up to 64GB of quad-channel 2667MHz or 2933MHz (HyperX)
- Storage Options
- Single drive: 2TB 7200RPM SATA 6Gb/s or 256GB - 1TB M.2 PCIe SSD
- Dual drive: 128GB - 1TB M.2 SATA SSD (Boot) + 2TB 7200RPM SATA 6Gb/s (Storage)
- Intel Optane Accelerated Options
- 16GB Intel Optane memory accelerated 1TB 7200RPM HDD
- 32GB Intel Optane memory accelerated 1TB - 2TB 7200RPM HDD
- Slot-Loading Dual-Layer DVD Burner (DVD±RW) (Standard)
- Slot-Loading Dual Layer Blu-ray Disc Reader (BD-ROM, DVD±RW, CD-RW)
- Internal High-Definition 7.1 Audio (Standard)
- Dual Killer E2500 Intelligent Networking (Gigabit Ethernet NIC)
- Dell 1820 802.11ac 2x2 WiFi/Bluetooth 4.1 or Killer 1535 802.11ac 2x2 WiFi/Bluetooth 4.1
- Front Ports
- 2x SuperSpeed USB 3.1 Gen 1 Type-A
- 3.5 mm headphone and 3.5 mm Mic Port
- Media Card Reader
- Rear Ports
- 2x RJ-45 Killer Networks E2500 Gigabit Ethernet Port
- 2x Hi-Speed USB 2.0
- 6x SuperSpeed USB 3.1 Gen 1 Type-A
- 1x SuperSpeed USB 3.1 Gen 2 Type-A
- 1x SuperSpeed USB 3.1 Gen 2 Type-C w/ 15W PowerShare technology
- 1x SPDIF Digital Output (TOSLINK)
- 1x Line-In (blue port)
- 1x Front L/R / Headphone (green port)
- 1x Center Channel / Subwoofer (orange port)
- 1x L/R Rear Surround (black port)
- 1x L/R Side Surround (white port)
- Operating System:
- Windows 10 Home (64-bit) (Standard)
- Windows 10 Pro (64-bit)
The release date and pricing have not been announced, but Dell states these Intel Core X-series desktops "will be available late summer" with pricing information soon to come.
Subject: General Tech | June 7, 2017 - 02:35 AM | Tim Verry
Tagged: msi, SFF, barebones, nuc, kaby lake, Intel, Optane, computex
MSI recently introduced a new member of its Cubi small form factor barebones PC lineup. The Cubi 3 is a fanless PC that is build around Intel’s Kaby Lake-U processors and will arrive sometime this fall.
The Cubi 3 is a bit larger than its predecessors, but with the larger enclosure MSI was able to achieve a fanless design for up to (U series) Core i7 processors. The SFF PC sports a brushed aluminum case that shows off the top of the CPU heatsink through vents that run around the top edge of the case. There are two flat antennas for Wi-Fi and Bluetooh integrated into the left and right sides of the case.
FanlessTech reports that the MSI Cubi 3 will sport 15W Kaby Lake-U processors from low end Celerons up to Core i7 models. These parts are dual core parts with HyperThreading (2c/4t) with 3 MB or 4 MB of L3 cache and either HD (615 or 620) or Iris Plus (640 or 650) integrated graphics. The processor is paired with two DDR4 SO-DIMM slots for up to 32 GB of 2133 MHz memory, an M.2 2280 SSD (there is even Intel Optane support), and a single 2.5” drive.
The Cubi 3 has an audio jack and two USB 3.0 ports up front, and what appears to be two USB 2.0 ports on the left side. Rear I/O includes one HDMI, one DisplayPort, two more USB 3.0, two Gigabit Ethernet, two COM ports, and one power jack for the 65W AC power adapter.
There is no word on pricing yet, but it is slated to begin production in August with availability this fall.
It is always nice to see more competition in this niche fanless SFF space, and the little box would not look out of place on a desk or even in the living room. What are your thoughts?
Introduction, How PCM Works, Reading, Writing, and Tweaks
I’ve seen a bit of flawed logic floating around related to discussions about 3D XPoint technology. Some are directly comparing the cost per die to NAND flash (you can’t - 3D XPoint likely has fewer fab steps than NAND - especially when compared with 3D NAND). Others are repeating a bunch of terminology and element names without taking the time to actually explain how it works, and far too many folks out there can't even pronounce it correctly (it's spoken 'cross-point'). My plan is to address as much of the confusion as I can with this article, and I hope you walk away understanding how XPoint and its underlying technologies (most likely) work. While we do not have absolute confirmation of the precise material compositions, there is a significant amount of evidence pointing to one particular set of technologies. With Optane Memory now out in the wild and purchasable by folks wielding electron microscopes and mass spectrometers, I have seen enough additional information come across to assume XPoint is, in fact, PCM based.
XPoint memory. Note the shape of the cell/selector structure. This will be significant later.
While we were initially told at the XPoint announcement event Q&A that the technology was not phase change based, there is overwhelming evidence to the contrary, and it is likely that Intel did not want to let the cat out of the bag too early. The funny thing about that is that both Intel and Micron were briefing on PCM-based memory developments five years earlier, and nearly everything about those briefings lines up perfectly with what appears to have ended up in the XPoint that we have today.
Some die-level performance characteristics of various memory types. source
The above figures were sourced from a 2011 paper and may be a bit dated, but they do a good job putting some actual numbers with the die-level performance of the various solid state memory technologies. We can also see where the ~1000x speed and ~1000x endurance comparisons with XPoint to NAND Flash came from. Now, of course, those performance characteristics do not directly translate to the performance of a complete SSD package containing those dies. Controller overhead and management must take their respective cuts, as is shown with the performance of the first generation XPoint SSD we saw come out of Intel:
The ‘bridging the gap’ Latency Percentile graph from our Intel SSD DC P4800X review.
(The P4800X comes in at 10us above).
There have been a few very vocal folks out there chanting 'not good enough', without the basic understanding that the first publicly available iteration of a new technology never represents its ultimate performance capabilities. It took NAND flash decades to make it into usable SSDs, and another decade before climbing to the performance levels we enjoy today. Time will tell if this holds true for XPoint, but given Micron's demos and our own observed performance of Intel's P4800X and Optane Memory SSDs, I'd argue that it is most certainly off to a good start!
A 3D XPoint die, submitted for your viewing pleasure (click for larger version).
Subject: Editorial | April 27, 2017 - 12:19 PM | Alex Lustenberg
Tagged: podcast, Win 3.11, ssd, riotoro, Optane Memory, Optane, Intel, GTX 1080Ti, fsp, evga, EK Supremacy, corsair, biostar, asus, video
PC Perspective Podcast #447 - 04/27/17
Join us for loads of Intel Optane, multiple water cooling parts, a Mini-ITX AM4 board, and more!
The URL for the podcast is: http://pcper.com/podcast - Share with your friends!
- iTunes - Subscribe to the podcast directly through the iTunes Store (audio only)
- Google Play - Subscribe to our audio podcast directly through Google Play!
- RSS - Subscribe through your regular RSS reader (audio only)
- MP3 - Direct download link to the MP3 file
Hosts: Jeremy Hellstrom, Allyn Malventano, Ken Addison, Morry Teitelman
Peanut Gallery: Alex Lustenberg
Program length: 1:50:22
Week in Review:
News items of interest:
Hardware/Software Picks of the Week
Subject: Storage | April 24, 2017 - 05:20 PM | Jeremy Hellstrom
Tagged: XPoint, srt, rst, Optane Memory, Optane, Intel, hybrid, CrossPoint, cache, 32GB, 16GB
At $44 for 16GB or $77 for a 32GB module Intel's Optane memory will cost you less in total for an M.2 SSD, though a significantly higher price per gigabyte. The catch is that you need to have a Kaby Lake Core system to be able to utilize Optane, which means you are unlikely to be using a HDD. Al's test show that Optane will also benefit a system using an SSD, reducing latency noticeably although not as significantly as with a HDD.
The Tech Report tested it differently, by sourcing a brand new desktop system with Kaby Lake Core APU that did not ship with an SSD. Once installed, the Optane drive enabled the system to outpace an affordable 480GB SSD in some scenarios; very impressive for a HDD. They also did peek at the difference Optane makes when paired with aforementioned affordable SSD in their full review.
"Intel's Optane Memory tech purports to offer most of the responsiveness of an SSD to systems whose primary storage device is a good old hard drive. We put a 32GB stick of Optane Memory to the test to see whether it lives up to Intel's claims."
Here are some more Storage reviews from around the web:
- Intel Optane Memory Review - 1.4GB/s Speed & 300K IOPS for $44 @ The SSD Review
- The Intel Optane Memory Module Review @ Hardware Canucks
- Kingston DCP1000 NVMe SSD Reaches 7GB/s @ Kitguru
- WD Blue 1,000 GiB SSD @ Hardware Secrets
- Synology DiskStation DS916+ 4-Bay NAS @ Kitguru
- Drobo 5N2 NAS @ Kitguru
- Kingston Ultimate GT 2TB Flash Drive @ The SSD Review
- Toshiba X300 6TB HDD @ Kitguru
Introduction, Specifications, and Requirements
Finally! Optane Memory sitting in our lab! Sure, it’s not the mighty P4800X we remotely tested over the past month, but this is right here, sitting on my desk. It’s shipping, too, meaning it could be sitting on your desk (or more importantly, in your PC) in just a matter of days.
The big deal about Optane is that it uses XPoint Memory, which has fast-as-lightning (faster, actually) response times of less than 10 microseconds. Compare this to the fastest modern NAND flash at ~90 microseconds, and the differences are going to add up fast. What’s wonderful about these response times is that they still hold true even when scaling an Optane product all the way down to just one or two dies of storage capacity. When you consider that managing fewer dies means less work for the controller, we can see latencies fall even further in some cases (as we will see later).
Introduction and Specifications
XPoint. Optane. QuantX. We've been hearing these terms thrown around for two years now. A form of 3D stackable non-volatile memory that promised 10x the density of DRAM and 1000x the speed and endurance of NAND. These were bold statements, and over the following months, we would see them misunderstood and misconstrued by many in the industry. These misconceptions were further amplified by some poor demo choices on the part of Intel (fortunately countered by some better choices made by Micron). Fortunately cooler heads prevailed as Jim Handy and other industry analysts helped explain that a 1000x improvement at the die level does not translate to the same improvement at the device level, especially when the first round of devices must comply with what will soon become a legacy method of connecting a persistent storage device to a PC.
Did I just suggest that PCIe 3.0 and the NVMe protocol - developed just for high-speed storage, is already legacy tech? Well, sorta.
That 'Future NVM' bar at the bottom of that chart there was a 2-year old prototype iteration of what is now Optane. Note that while NVMe was able to shrink down the yellow bar a bit, as you introduce faster and faster storage, the rest of the equation (meaning software, including the OS kernel) starts to have a larger and larger impact on limiting the ultimate speed of the device.
NAND Flash simplified schematic (via Wikipedia)
Before getting into the first retail product to push all of these links in the storage chain to the limit, let's explain how XPoint works and what makes it faster. Taking random writes as an example, NAND Flash (above) must program cells in pages and erase cells in blocks. As modern flash has increased in capacity, the sizes of those pages and blocks have scaled up roughly proportionally. At present day we are at pages >4KB and block sizes in the megabytes. When it comes to randomly writing to an already full section of flash, simply changing the contents of one byte on one page requires the clearing and rewriting of the entire block. The difference between what you wanted to write and what the flash had to rewrite to accomplish that operation is called the write amplification factor. It's something that must be dealt with when it comes to flash memory management, but for XPoint it is a completely different story:
XPoint is bit addressible. The 'cross' structure means you can select very small groups of data via Wordlines, with the ultimate selection resolving down to a single bit.
Since the programmed element effectively acts as a resistor, its output is read directly and quickly. Even better - none of that write amplification nonsense mentioned above applies here at all. There are no pages or blocks. If you want to write a byte, go ahead. Even better is that the bits can be changed regardless of their former state, meaning no erase or clear cycle must take place before writing - you just overwrite directly over what was previously stored. Is that 1000x faster / 1000x more write endurance than NAND thing starting to make more sense now?
Ok, with all of the background out of the way, let's get into the meat of the story. I present the P4800X: