Subject: General Tech, Storage | July 18, 2013 - 02:29 AM | Tim Verry
Tagged: nand, micron, flash, 16nm
Micron recently announced that is has begun sampling 16nm NAND flash to select partners. Micron expects to begin full production of the NAND chips using the smaller flash manufacturing process in the fourth quarter of this year (Q4 2013). Drives based on its new 16nm MLC NAND flash are expected to arrive as early as next year. (PC Perspective's own storage expert is currently overseas, but I managed to reach out over email to get some clarification, and his thoughts, on the Micron annuoncement.)
The announcement relates to new NAND flash that is smaller, but not necessarily faster, than the existing 20nm and 25nm flash chips used in current solid state drives. In the end, Micron is still delivering 128Gb (Gigabit) per die, but using a 16nm process. The 16nm flash is a pure shrink of 20nm which is, in turn, a shrink of 25nm flash. In fact, Micron is able to get just under 6 Terabytes of storage out of a single 300mm wafer. These wafers are then broken down into dies in individual flash chips that are used in all manner of solid state storage devices from smartphone embedded storage to desktop SSDs. This 16nm flash still delivers 128Gb --which is 16GB-- per die allowing for a 128GB SSD using as few as eight chips.
A single 16nm NAND flash die with a SSD in the background
Micron expects the 16nm MLC (multi-level cell) flash to be used in consumer SSDs, USB thumb drives, mobile devices, and cloud storage.
The 16nm process will allow Micron to get more storage out of the same sized wafer (300mm) used for current processes, which in theory should mean flash memory that is not only smaller, but (in theory) cheaper.
A single wafer of 16nm NAND flash (just under 6TBs)
As Allyn further notes, the downside to the new 16nm NAND flash is a reduction in the number of supported PE cycles. Micron has not released specific information on this, but the new 16nm MLC flash is expected to have fewer than 1,000 P/E cycles. For comparison, 25nm and 20nm flash has P/E cycles of 3,000 and 1,000 respectively.
In simple terms, P/E (program-erase) cycles relate to the number of times that a specific portion of flash memory can be written to before wearing out. SSD manufacturers were able to work around this with the transition from 25nm to 20nm and still deliver acceptable endurance on consumer drives, and I expect that similar techniques will be used to do the same for 16nm flash. For example, manufactuers could enable compression that is used prior to writing out the data to the physical flash or over-provisioning the actual hardware versus the reported software capacity (ie a drive sold as a 100GB model that actually has 128GB of physical flash).
I don't think it will be a big enough jump that typical consumers wil have to worry too much about this, considering the vast majority of operations will be read operations and not writes. Despite the reduction in P/E cycles, SSDs with 16nm NAND MLC flash will still likely out-last a typical mechanical hard drive.
What do you think about the Micron announcement?
The full press release can be found below:
Subject: General Tech | April 16, 2013 - 01:26 PM | Jeremy Hellstrom
Tagged: TMS RamSan, IBM, FlashSystem, flash, 1 billion
IBM has invested $1 billion in SSD research and development, creating a project called IBM FlashSystem. They will create a dozen 'competency centres' across the globe this year to help customers understand scenarios in which flash storage will help their business. To show off their prowess they created a 500TB system based on their FlashSystem 820; you can see a video of the system at The Register. IBM has already signed a deal with Sprint to build 9 storage systems and there will be more customers soon. IBM is also redesigning their system software to take advantage of the speed of flash which will make the transition even more attractive to companies.
"Say goodbye to TMS RamSan and hello to IBM FlashSystem. Back in 2001, IBM CEO Lou Gerstner said IBM would spend a billion dollars to boost its Linux business and that billion paid itself off within two years. In 2002, the firm splurged the same amount on Java tools, and in 2006, pumped $1bn into information management. Fast-forward seven years and Ginny Rometty's IBM is going to spend a billion dollars to boost its flash solid state storage business."
Here is some more Tech News from around the web:
Subject: General Tech | March 25, 2013 - 12:50 PM | Jeremy Hellstrom
Tagged: spintronics, racetrack, pram, molybdenum, micron, memristor, IBM, hp, graphene, flash
Over the past several years we have seen actual production of phase change memory from Micron, though no benchmarks yet, transistors whose resistance can be altered to be used as non-volatile storage which HP has dubbed Memristors and IBM's Spintronic Racetrack Memory; all of which claim to be the replacement for NAND. There is no question we need a new type of flash, preferably non-volatile, as it is likely that there will be a limit on effective speed and density reached with traditional NAND. It is also true that the path to our current flash technology is littered with the carcasses of failed technology standards, whether RAMBUS is willing to admit it or not.
Now there is more details available on yet another possible contender based on molybdenum disulfide which sports a charge-trapping layer to make it non-volatile. The Register was told that by layering MoS2 between layers of graphene they get a NAND cell smaller than traditional cells but unfortunately there was no report of the speed of these cells. We may soon be living in interesting times, with process shrunk traditional flash and these four technologies competing for market share. You can bet that they will not be compatible and that each will likely spawn their own breeds of controllers and make purchasing SSDs and other flash storage devices much more complicated, at least until one standard can claim victory over the others.
"A Swiss government research lab has reinvented flash memory using graphene and molybdenite in a way that should be faster, scale smaller, use less energy and yet more flexible than boring old NAND.
Molybdenite is MoS2, molybdenum disulfide, which is similar to graphite and also has a lubricating effect. Atomically it is a layer of molybdenum atoms between top and bottom layers of sulfide atoms. It is a semiconductor and can be used to create transistor."
Here is some more Tech News from around the web:
- Intel to release new SSDs for enterprise and datacenter applications @ DigiTimes
- Rival bidders emerge for Dell @ The Inquirer
- Testers Say IE 11 Can Impersonate Firefox Via User Agent String @ Slashdot
- How to survive a UEFI BOOT-OF-DEATH on Samsung laptops @ The Register
- Mining bitcoins on a Nintendo @ Hack a Day
- Twitter, Hotmail, LinkedIn, Yahoo Open To Hijacking @ Slashdot
- MSI MPOWER OC Event @ Madshrimps
- Samsung Galaxy S4 vs Blackberry Q10 specs comparison @ The Inquirer
- ARM's new CEO: You'll get no 'glorious new strategy' from me @ The Register
- Samsung Galaxy S4 interactive @ The Inquirer
- 18 days of hottish Pebble love @ The Tech Report
Subject: Mobile | December 3, 2012 - 03:28 PM | Jeremy Hellstrom
Tagged: jelly bean, flash, galaxy nexus, CyanogenMod, mod, Android
If you were an early adopter and now have an aging Android tablet which is not being supported by the manufacturer, or at least they are very slow at releasing updates, you can always try flashing it with a custom ROM. The Tech Report tried this out on a Galaxy Nexus using a ROM from CyanogenMod, a fairly well known provider of such things. While it certainly improved the performance of the OS, there were several issues including the failure of GPS which prompted them to try out other ROMs. Head on over to read up on the most current images you can flash to, their providers and the difference between the two types of ROMs currently available.
"In his latest blog post, TR's Geoff Gasior recounts his experience trying to revitalize an aging Android tablet with custom Jelly Bean ROMs."
Here are some more Mobile articles from around the web:
- SUS Zenbook UX51Vz-DH71 Review @ TechReviewSource
- Acer Aspire S3-391-6046 Review @ TechReviewSource
- HP EliteBook 2170p Ultraportable @ AnandTech
- ASUS S56C Ultrabook @ Tweaktown
- Acer Aspire S7-391-6810 Review @ TechReviewSource
- Kobo Glo @ The Register
- BlackBerry 10: AWESOME. If the hardware matches it, RIM jobs are safe @ The Register
- ARM Cortex-A15 vs. NVIDIA Tegra 3 vs. Intel x86 @ Phoronix
- Google Android 4.2 Jelly Bean Mobile OS @ Tweaktown
- Mophie Juice Pack Battery Case For Galaxy S III Review @ Legit Reviews
- Apple iPad Keyboard Folio Round-up @ TechSpot
- Huawei Ascend G330 @ The Inquirer
- Google/LG Nexus 4 @ Tweaktown
- Nokia Lumia 920 with Windows Phone 8 Review @ HardwareHeaven
- LG Optimus L5 Smartphone @ Tweaktown
- Google Nexus 4 @ The Inquirer
- Nokia Lumia 920 Windows Phone 8 Smartphone Review @ Legit Reviews
Subject: General Tech | September 9, 2012 - 04:19 PM | Scott Michaud
Tagged: Malware, IE10, flash
Recent statements from Microsoft show that they are not afraid to wait a little bit before shipping patches with their bundled Flash in Internet Explorer 10. The issue is more contained than is let on by Ars Technica – but also raises a bigger security issue for all of us at all times.
By far the worst enemy for security is complacency.
I often pick on Apple for their security practices. They are perceived as being secure despite their horrendous record of handling security updates – delaying a critical patch for privately disclosed vulnerabilities until after its reveal at Blackhat because Apple could not devote the programmer to the task.
That mentality has been everywhere – from Sony to Microsoft in the Windows XP era to Macromedia & Adobe.
In this case the issue is that Microsoft has been delaying updates to the built in copy of Adobe Flash preinstalled with Internet Explorer 10. Once a patch has been released attackers are able to figure out what the patch fixes and potentially exploit it for those who have yet to update. There are quite a few subtle caveats with this story which need to be discussed before opinions are made.
... Relatively speaking...
First and foremost – Flash support on the Metro-based Internet Explorer 10 is limited to a whitelist. Flash is not exposed to websites which have not been flagged by Microsoft as safe and requiring backwards compatibility with Flash.
Websites become compromised all the time. Should one of the whitelisted websites get attacked it could become forced to serve a Flash applet to its users. The delay between Adobe and Microsoft patching dates gives the attackers a window to exploit all IE10 users until the whitelisted website notices. Attacks like these are very commonplace recently.
As an aside – there is quite a bit of confusion over Internet Explorer 10 on the desktop. According to the RTM evaluation it appears as though the only way to update Flash for Internet Explorer is through Windows Update even when not using the Metro browser. The whitelist is also in effect for Windows on the desktop although it seems like users are able to add their own exemptions. It appears like user-set exemptions is unique to the desktop version of IE.
It is disconcerting to see a platform become complacent to potential security issues intentionally. To be fair it is entirely possible that Google Chrome could have similar issues as they too handle Adobe Flash integration. Unlike IE10, Google Chrome does allow you to disable the built in Flash and manage your updates directly from Adobe although the process is far too complicated for most users.
Subject: General Tech | July 3, 2012 - 02:07 PM | Jeremy Hellstrom
Tagged: purchase, billions, micron, Elpida, rexchip, powerchip, DRAM, flash
Micron has been very busy lately, spending $2.5 billion USD to purchase Elpida and another $334 million USD to purchase another 24% of DRAM maker Rexchip from Powerchip. The latter of those purchases gives Micron a total of 89% of the existing shares of Rexchip which may not give them outright ownership of Rexchip but gives them such a huge majority that they can determine the outcome of any vote which is presented to shareholders. Rexchip brings a single 300mm Fab working on 30nm process to the table, which gives Micron a bit more manufacturing capability to utilize for what is likely to be a busy season for them.
The Elpida purchase is much bigger for both the industry and Micron, especially as they decided to buy the company outright instead of purchasing a subsidiary or only the IP of Elpida. Instead the company will remain intact for the near future though there will likely be changes to the executive structure as they are integrated with Micron. Not only does this purchase give them access to all property, intellectual or physical, that Elpida currently possesses it give Micron an in at Apple as it was Elpida that supplied much of the chips used by Apple. That would put Micron in the enviable position of supplying both PC and Apple products. DigiTimes breaks down the deal here.
"Micron Technology and Elpida Memory's trustees have signed a definitive sponsor agreement for Micron to acquire Elpida, according to the US memory chipmaker. The agreement has been entered into in connection with Elpida's corporate reorganization proceedings conducted under the jurisdiction of the Tokyo District Court.
Micron revealed that under the agreement, JPY200 billion (US$2.5 billion) total consideration and less certain reorganization proceeding expenses will be used to satisfy the reorganization claims of Elpida's secured and unsecured creditors. Micron will acquire 100% of the equity of Elpida for JPY60 billion to be paid in cash at closing."
Here is some more Tech News from around the web:
- Users enraged by Cisco's cloudy 'upgrade' to Linksys routers @ The Register
- Mozilla's 'Boot to Gecko' morphs into Firefox OS @ The Register
- The impact of Ivy Bridge on current processor pricing @ eTeknix
- Creating a Bootable DOS Flash Drive the Easy Way @ Techgage
- Kensington Absolute Power Dual USB Wall Charger Review @ NikKTech
- The TR Podcast 114: Gigahertz graphics and high-def tablets
Subject: Storage | July 3, 2012 - 12:21 AM | Tim Verry
Tagged: ssd, slc, server, sandisk, PCIe SSD, flash, enterprise, caching
Flash storage company Sandisk has recently jumped into the world of enterprise PCI-E caching SSDs – what they are calling Solid State Accelerators. Currently, they are offering a 200GB and 400GB model under the company’s Lightning PCIe series. The SSDs feature a proprietary Sandisk controller driving 24nm SLC NAND flash, a PCI-E 2.0 x4 interface, and maximum power draw of 15 watts.
The Lightning Accelerators use the NAND flash for Sandisk’s own foundry and offer a large performance boost for servers and workstations over hard drives and SATA SSDs. It is capable of 410 MB/s sequential reads or 110,000 IOPS. Further, when using 4KB and 8KB blocks, the drives can reach 23,000 and 17,000 read/write IOPS respectively. Other specifications include an average response time of 245 microseconds, and less than 30 millisecond maximum response times. The Solid State Accelerators also feature sustained read and write latencies as low as 50 microseconds.
Sandisk has built the drives so that they can be configured as boot drives, storage drives, or caching drives. The company supports up to 5 drives in a single system, for a maximum of 2TB of flash storage. In addition, Sandisk is offering up its Flashsoft software that allows the Lightning Accelerators to be used as caching drives on Windows-based systems. Unfortunately, that is an additional cost which is not included in the already pricey SSDs (good thing for corporate expense accounts!).
Speaking of pricing, the 200GB LP206M has an MSRP of $1,350 while the 400GB LP406M has an MSRP of $2,350. Both cards have five year warranties and a MTBF rating of 2 million hours. You can find more information on the Sandisk Website.
It will be interesting to see how this Sandisk accelerator stacks up to the likes of the Intel 910 and FusioIO drives! The FusionIO FX, for example, gives you 420GB of QDP MLC NAND for $2,495, which works out such that Sandisk has a slightly lower cost-per-gigabyte value and SLC flash. We will have to wait for some independant reviews to say which drive is actually faster, however.
Subject: Storage | June 4, 2012 - 06:00 PM | Allyn Malventano
Tagged: computex, SF-2000, sandforce, LSI, flash
As some of you may already be aware, SandForce was acquired by LSI back in January of this year. SandForce has made a very popular SSD controller for some time now and was the first maker to demo a controller driving 25nm flash (last year). Now SandForce (under LSI) has done it once again. This time with the same type of controller driving both 19nm Toshiba and 20nm Micron (IMFT) flash memory types:
The release from LSI reports the controller supporting all six flash vendors, giving some serious flexibiltiy to makers of flash memory systems and products. Aside from a confirmation of the ability to drive newer flash memory types, the remainder of the specs appear largely the same, minus some additional tweaks to ECC necessary to support increased error rates encountered as dies shrink.
Full press release from LSI after the break:
Subject: General Tech, Systems, Mobile | May 23, 2012 - 10:46 PM | Scott Michaud
Tagged: WOA, windows 8, flash
Microsoft has backed down, to some extent, from their “plug-in free; web standards only” position for the Metro-half of IE10. Some, but not all, Flash content will be able to play in the Metro browser. This change should be included in the Windows 8 Release Preview expected to be released in early June.
You may turn your back on Adobe but you’ll be back in a Flash.
Rafael Rivera has published a post on his Within Windows blog which he co-authored with Paul Thurrott about Flash integration with the Metro web browser. Until recently Microsoft was passionately against anything other than web standards in their Metro browser. Plugins are still not allowed in the application but that does not exclude Microsoft from embedding Flash into the browser directly.
I guess Silverlight is not popular enough…
(screenshot credit: Within Windows)
Adobe actively supports Microsoft’s efforts and has provided the source code to facilitate the integration into Metro Internet Explorer 10.
Security will rest somewhat on Microsoft’s ability to patch their software in time but will also be supported by a whitelist system. Flash for Internet Explorer 10 will only be supported on certain websites in certain ways. Unless your website is listed as requiring Flash for compatibility reasons then your website will not have access to the platform.
I am not really sure whether there is a cut or dry answer to whether this is a good thing or a bad thing. The only thing I can say for certain is that Microsoft gives the impression that they had a strong and clear vision for Windows 8 and since completely abandoned their plan.
It follows the rumors of what happened to Vista: a bunch of years working on a secure memory management architecture that was scrapped at the last minute requiring over half of the OS to be rewritten in C++.
We all know how great that turned out.
Subject: General Tech, Storage | March 7, 2012 - 01:39 PM | Jeremy Hellstrom
Tagged: western digital, ssd, hitachi, flash, EMC
Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, which was the result of the merger of Hitachi and IBM's HDD businesses, is likely being purchased by Western Digital tomorrow for about $4.3 billion. This makes sense as WD has been using Hitachi GST as a sales partner when providing EMC with high end flash disks. This deal comes on the heels of a major sell, the SSD400S flash disk which uses Intel's 34nm SLC NAND and the SSD400S-B which utilizes the new 25nm NAND developed by Intel. Check out the specifications of the flash drives as well as the new SSD company over at The Register.
"WD is buying Hitachi GST and the acquisition is expected to be formally announced tomorrow with a condition of two years of independence for Hitachi GST - imposed by a Chinese anti-competition regulator. EMC has certified Hitachi GST's SSD400S flash disks for use in its VNX mid-range unified storage arrays, including the all-flash VNX5500-F, so WD will effectively fulfil this deal once the acquisition is announced."
Here is some more Tech News from around the web:
- TSMC suddenly halts 28nm production @ SemiAccurate
- AMD cuts loose GlobalFoundries stake @ The Register
- Peter Molyneux has left Microsoft @ The Inquirer
- Workers can't escape Windows 8 Metro - Microsoft COO @ The Inquirer
- 5 Tips and Tricks for Using Yum @ The Register
- Adobe lobs out Flash update to plug 3D security hole @ The Register
- Six foot speaker shakes buildings to their foundation @ Hack a Da
- Digital Innovations Accessories @ TechwareLabs
- Cebit 2012 HardwareHeaven Coverage